Second Realm

Eric P. Rhodes, Artist


The Jacquard Loom’s Profound Impact on Computing and Digital Art

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During a recent trip to The Paterson Museum for my studies in NJ Labor History at Rutgers University with Dr. Daniel Sidorick, I found myself fascinated by the blend of the silk industry’s history and the technological advancements that molded it. The Jacquard loom and more specifically the punch cards that were fed into it piqued my interest. Additional research unveiled that the punch cards used by computer artists in the 1970’s (that I was familiar with) had a precursor almost 170 years earlier in the textile industry.

This discovery urged me to dive deeper into the loom’s history, its impact on computing, the growth of computer art, and the similarities with today’s blockchain art. Within this intricate web of tech and art history, the Jacquard loom not only symbolizes a revolution in textiles but also stands as a foundation in modern computing and digital art.

What is the Jacquard Loom?

Introduced by Joseph Marie Jacquard in 1801, this advanced loom brought about a significant shift in textile manufacturing. Before the Jacquard loom, intricate fabric patterns like brocade or damask required manual, labor-intensive processes. Jacquard mechanized this with his loom by utilizing punched cards, which controlled the raising and lowering of warp threads, allowing for precise and complex patterns to be created with greater ease and efficiency.

The real breakthrough of the Jacquard loom was this system of punch cards. Each card in the series corresponded to one row of the design, and together they created elaborate patterns. This approach automated pattern creation, making complex designs more accessible while drastically reducing manufacturing time and costs.1

Jacquard OFS Loom on display at The Paterson Museum

From Textiles to Technology

The impact of the Jacquard loom went way beyond just textile mills in Lyon and into the world of computational tech. The loom’s use of a binary system with punched (or unpunched) cards directly mirrored the basic binary code—zeros and ones—that’s key to today’s computing.2 This approach caught the eye of Charles Babbage, a visionary in the world of computational machinery. Inspired by the loom’s working principles, Babbage came up with the Analytical Engine. Even though this groundbreaking machine was never finished, its design set the stage for future computers, creating a legacy that shaped digital processing and data storage.3 Ada Lovelace famously observed:

The Analytical Engine weaves algebraic patterns, just as the Jacquard loom weaves flowers and leaves.

Ada Lovelace, mathematician (1843)

After Babbage’s first steps into programmable machines, the idea of using punched cards for data and instructions kept growing. By the early 20th century, these cards became crucial for early computers. Machines like the Harvard Mark I and ENIAC relied on punch cards for programming, linking mechanical automation with electronic computation.4,5 This period marked the shift from mechanical systems, like the Jacquard loom, to electronic computing devices, paving the way for the digital revolution.

As computing tech advanced from the mid to late 20th century, punch cards became the go-to for programming, storing, and processing info. This method wasn’t just a textile machine relic but a key part of early computing systems. Universities, governments, and businesses worldwide relied on card-based systems for calculations, data management, and even running complex telephone networks. The widespread use of punch card tech during this time highlighted its importance in the shift from industrial-age mechanics to the information-age dynamics of modern computing.6,7

Bicentennial punched card (1976, IBM). Photo Credit: Computer History Museum

Art Meets Algorithm

By the mid-20th century, the principles of the Jacquard loom started influencing a new field: computer-generated art. Artists and programmers saw the potential in using computers, guided by punch cards like the loom, to create visual art. This era marked the start of algorithmic art, where computer programs, similar to the loom’s punched cards, were used to craft intricate images and patterns.8

Georg Nees, a mathematician and artist, utilized computer technology to craft groundbreaking artworks. His works ‘Sculpture 1’ and ‘Sculpture 2’, created between 1965 and 1968, employed punch card-programmed machines, underscoring the blend of mathematical logic and aesthetic intuition. Nees’s art, which formed part of an exhibition initiated by Max Bense in 1965, marked an important milestone in the history of algorithmic art.9

Three-dimensional wooden sculpture by Georg Nees, “Sculpture 1”, created with punch card program controlled milling machine (1970). Photo Credit: Heike Werner

This innovative art form also found a fertile environment in research hubs like Bell Telephone Laboratories, where artistic curiosity and tech innovation converged. Here, pioneers delved into the untapped artistic possibilities of computer programming. They weren’t weaving textiles but crafting images and designs through “punch card” commands on computers. This evolution was a pivotal moment, merging mathematical precision with artistic expression to create early computer-generated art.10

Similarly, artists like Nam June Paik, a visionary in video art, pushed these boundaries. Paik’s creation “Etude 1” from 1967 reflects his early exploration into generating art through computer programming at Bell Labs. Initially a silent computer opera, “Etude 1” showcases how computer code transitioned into visual art, resembling a four-leaf clover filled with characters.11

Other artists at Bell Labs, like Stan VanDerBeek and Lillian Schwartz, also blended technology and art. VanDerBeek, known for experimental film, used Bell Labs’ tech to challenge traditional art boundaries.12 Schwartz explored optical illusions and visual effects, showing punch cards’ ability to create captivating narratives from data.13

This chapter in digital media history merged math precision with artistic expression to birth computer-generated art. The legacy of the Jacquard loom’s punch card system lives on in these artistic ventures, bridging a fascinating lineage from textile to pixel, from loom to computer screen.14

The Enduring Influence of the Jacquard Loom

The Jacquard loom introduced the idea of controlling operations through a sequence of instructions, setting the stage for modern computing and contemporary digital art realm. The evolution of digital art, from computer graphics to generative art, continues to expand on the foundations laid by computer artists of the mid-20th century.

Jacquard cards punch on display at The Paterson Museum

Using Jacquard’s centuries old innovation, computer artists experimented with computation and creativity. The Jacquard loom acts as a historical milestone, demonstrating how innovation in one field can influence many others, blending technology, history, and art into a story of human creativity and problem-solving. As we dive further into the possibilities of contemporary digital tools, the Jacquard loom reminds us of the interconnected nature of technological progress, showing how innovations can transcend their original purpose and impact various disciplines across different time periods.

The growing popularity of generative art on the blockchain mirrors the journey started by the Jacquard loom. This modern form of digital art utilizes blockchain’s decentralized and immutable features to create unique, algorithmically generated artworks sold as non-fungible tokens (NFTs). This shift not only makes art creation and ownership more accessible but also honors the enduring legacy of computational creativity that is marked by Jacquard’s invention.

Looking ahead, blending the past with the present, the lasting impact of the Jacquard loom reminds us of the cyclical nature of innovation. The legacy of the loom and the early digital artists’ explorations highlight an ongoing process of evolution, where the tools of one era lay the groundwork for the next. This historical perspective enriches our grasp of current advancements and underscores the timeless essence of creative exploration and technological progress.

References:

  1. “Programming Patterns: The Story of the Jacquard Loom.” Science and Industry Museum, 25 June 2019, www.smithsonianmag.com/smithsonian-institution/new-works-nam-june-paik-discovered-smithsonian-american-art-museum-180954571/ ↩︎
  2. ibid ↩︎
  3. Hyman, A. (1982). “Charles Babbage: Pioneer of the Computer”. Princeton University Press. ↩︎
  4. Campbell-Kelly, M. (1989). “From Airline Reservations to Sonic the Hedgehog: A History of the Software Industry”. The MIT Press ↩︎
  5. Ceruzzi, P.E. (1998). “A History of Modern Computing”. MIT Press. ↩︎
  6. Austrian, G.D. (1982). “Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing”. Columbia University Press. ↩︎
  7. Copeland, B. (2006). “ENIAC: The Triumphs and Tragedies of the World’s First Computer”. Walker Publishing. ↩︎
  8. Leavitt, D. (2006). “The Man Who Knew Too Much: Alan Turing and the Invention of the Computer”. W.W. Norton & Company. ↩︎
  9. Werner, Heike. “Pioneer Work: Georg Nees.” Heike Werner, www.heikewerner.com/nees_en.html. ↩︎
  10. Reichardt, J. (1971). “Cybernetic Serendipity: The Computer and the Arts”. Studio International. ↩︎
  11. Moonan, Wendy. “New Works by Nam June Paik Are Discovered at the Smithsonian American Art Museum.” Smithsonian Magazine, Smithsonian Institution, 23 March 2015, www.smithsonianmag.com/smithsonian-institution/new-works-nam-june-paik-discovered-smithsonian-american-art-museum-180954571/ ↩︎
  12. Youngblood, G. (1970). “Expanded Cinema”. Dutton. ↩︎
  13. Schwartz, L. (1984). “The Computer Artist’s Handbook”. W.W. Norton & Company. ↩︎
  14. Essinger, J. (2004). “Jacquard’s Web: How a Hand-Loom Led to the Birth of the Information Age”. Oxford University Press. ↩︎